New Pharmacy Schools and Accreditation Status For 2009, 2010, 2011

New Pharmacy schools are opening its doors at a very quick rate all across the United States. These schools may be a great option if your grades are below average, but there are some negative aspects of attending a brand new pharmacy school. First off, none of your loans will be subsidized by the government. What does this mean? For accredited pharmacy schools, students are given a decent amount of their loans as a subsidized Stafford loan, which does not accrues interest until after you graduate. If you attend a new pharmacy school, all of your loans will be accrue interest from day 1; this could add up to several thousand dollars more of loans to pay off after earning your Pharm.D.

Also, the new pharmacy school may never receive accreditation. A few years ago, Hawaii College of Pharmacy (HICP) had collected tuition and ran their Pharm.D. program until it closed its doors leaving its students stranded without a degree. The state of Hawaii Department of Consumer Protection closed the school down for not following the appropriate guidelines as a non-accredited school. Make sure you do your research before committing your time and money into a new Doctor of Pharmacy program.

Recently opened pharmacy schools and their accreditation status:

Belmont TN ——————————-Pre-Candidate
Calilfornia Northstate CA ——————-Pre-Candidate
Charleston WV—————————- Candidate
Chicago State IL ————————–Pre-Candidate
East Tennessee State TN ——————Candidate
Findlay OH ——————————–Candidate
Harding, University of AR ——————-Pre-Candidate
Hawaii at Hilo HI —————————Candidate
Incarnate Word TX ————————Candidate
Lipscomb TN ——————————Pre-Candidate
NEOUCOP OH ——————————Candidate
Pacific U. (OR) OR ————————-Candidate
Southern Illinois Edwardsville IL ————-Candidate
Sullivan *** KY —————————-PreCandidate
Texas A&M – Kingsville TX ——————-Candidate
Thomas Jefferson *** PA——————- Pre-Candidate
Touro (CA) CA —————————–Candidate
Touro (NY) NY —————————–Pre-Candidate
Union TN ———————————-Pre-Candidate

Here are a list of schools that may open in the near future:

Possible schools for 2011
Central California SOP- private stand-alone no university affiliation
Samual Merrit (#10 in CA)
St. Joseph College, CT
Roosevelt University, Chicago
Univerity of NC Greensboro

Possible schools opening 2010
The University of Maryland Eastern Shores
Drexel
Farleigh Dickinson
D’ Youville College
Concordia-Wisconsin-projects a class size of 300.
Presbyterian College-NC
University of South Florida
Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine

Schools opening 2009
Husson University
New England, University of ME
Notre Dame of Maryland
Regis University

ACPE has detailed accreditation status of all Pharmacy Schools in the United States. I am a Pharmacy School Student at the University of Southern California. My friend and I have created PharmApplicants.com which is a free pharmacy school applicant database, which lists profiles of accepted students at all pharmacy schools in the United States. You can take a look at school average GPA and average PCAT scores on this Pharmacy Schools list [http://www.pharmapplicants.com/school_list.php]. There are also other articles as well as GPA calculators that you will find useful on your quest to being admitted into pharmacy school!

How to Become a Qualified Pharmacy Technician

One of the professions you might want to consider in the health care industry is a pharmacy technician (PT). The career of PT’s these days is booming. Some of the daily duties is to assist in preparing medications and to provide customer service. They also receive pharmaceutical requests. They count the tablets before labeling the medication bottles. They may also perform clerical duties, if they are employed in a place where there are no pharmacy aides available. Basically, they work under the supervision of a pharmacist. Some owners of pharmacies tend to hire pharmacy techs to do both clerical and administrative duties, rather than employing pharmacy aides. This is one of the reasons pharmacy aide opportunities are decreasing.

Starting salary

A pharmacy tech’s duty is to measure, mix, count, label and record the dosage of prescription medications. Those who work in this field can have a starting annual salary rate of more than $19,000 with an hourly rate of over $9. Those pharmacy techs working in a federal executive branch earn the highest salary of more than $39,000 a year with an hourly mean wage of more than $19. The biggest employers for pharmacy technologists are those that belong to the health and personal care stores. In terms of geography, the highest employment level in the PT occupation is in California. The figures mentioned here came from the Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Occupational Employment and Wages, May 2010 report.

Shifts

Pharmacy techs who work during weekends or beyond business hours are paid more through the shift differential’s scheme. Companies may pay them 25 cents or more for working on Saturdays, Sundays or in the evenings.

How to become a pharmacy tech?

If you want to pursue a pharmacy technician career, you must have a high school diploma, as one of its requirements. Most states require their pharmacy technicians to register with the state board of pharmacy before they can work as a pharmacy technician in one of the pharmacy-related companies in the US. Certification for pharmacy technician is not mandatory. However, obtaining a certificate increases your chances of getting hired and earning a higher salary than those who do not have a certificate. The following are two of the private organizations that offer certification examinations for pharmacy techs:

-The Pharmacy Technician Certification Board

-The Institute for the Certification of Pharmacy Technicians

Eligibility requirements for certification examinations will include:

-High school diploma

-No felony convictions

-No pharmacy-related convictions

-The actual cost of the examinations may be reimbursed by the employer.

The job outlook for the pharmacy tech career is positive. The job growth is increasing positively. Therefore, you will expect to find plenty of job opportunities in the near future. As long as you have the right training, proper education, and substantial amount of experience, you can easily win over the competition.

Details on How to Become a Pharmacy Technician

How do I become a pharmacy technician? There is no simple answer for this question. Unlike pharmacists, pharmacy technicians do not have a national standard for what it takes to enter the profession. Every state gets to make up there own requirements for what you need to do. The first thing you need to do is check your states requirements. To do this, Google your state’s name and board of pharmacy (eg, California Board of Pharmacy). Once you find your state board of pharmacy site, look for where it discusses pharmacy technician requirements. Another option is to find a site that has already compiled this information for you and provided links to your board of pharmacy website (my site has this done for you). The rest of this article will go over some of the common requirements seen, but remember, every state can require different things (in fact, some states do not require anything).

National Certification: Many states require some form of national certification. Many require it, some have it as one option to become a tech, others increase the pharmacist to technician ratio if the pharmacy has nationally certified techs, and other states do not mention it at all. The two most common options are the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB) and the Institute for the Certification of Pharmacy Technicians (ICPT, but their exam is called ExCPT). When you complete national certification you have the professional designation of certified pharmacy tech (CPhT). To maintain national certification you must complete 20 hours of continuous education credits every 2 years. I recommend everyone obtain national certification, if your state does not require it, you will be more competitive when interviewing for a job.

Training Program: The most important thing you need to know is that some states require an approved training program. The approval in some states is from the board of pharmacy; in other states they accept the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) approved programs. Some states do not have a training requirement, and others allow for on-the-job training. To obtain a solid knowledge about pharmacy, I do recommend a formal training program. Campus based programs are traditionally more expensive (there is more cost to run one). There are online programs that are much lower cost, and I think are a great option if you have other commitments (another job or school). Online programs are also great if you do not live by a campus based school.

Other:

Experiential hours, these are hours training in an actual pharmacy. Some states require a specific number of hours prior to licensure/registration.
Age limits, most states require you to be at least 18 years of age; however, some states allow someone to train while in high school.
High school diploma or equivalent is typically required.
Criminal record, or lack thereof. Many states require an FBI background search, so do not lie about this. Just because you have a criminal history doesn’t mean you are out of luck. Be honest, up front, and most of all you need to put good behavior time between you and your conviction. SO, BE GOOD!

As you can see, how you become a pharmacy tech is highly dependent on your state. Once you find out your state requirements, the next thing is to make a decision and just do it (or not do it). Send me any comments or feedback, I love hearing from people and will personally respond.

Pharmacy Technician Continuing Education

Although currently only a minority of states actually require pharmacy technician continuing education, more and more states have been adding this requirement. Regardless of state requirements, any pharmacy technician that is certified by the Pharmacy Technician Certification Board (PTCB) needs to complete 20 hours of continuing education every two years in order to get recertified. There are many options available for pharmacy technicians to complete their continuing education requirements.

The National Pharmacy Technician Association (NPTA) has accredited continuing education programs for pharmacy technicians available in a variety of different formats including online options, in print options, in person options, and recorded options. These pharmacy technician continuing education programs have been accredited by the Accreditation Council on Pharmacy Education (ACPE).

Once you have selected one of the pharmacy technician CE options available, you either read or watch the course material, and then you return to the website to take the course test. You need to score at least 70% in order to get credit for the course. If you receive a passing score you can print your certificate showing you have completed that pharmacy tech continuing education course. If you do not receive a high enough score to pass the course the first time, you can go over the materials again and try the test once more at no additional cost.

The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists (ASHP) also has pharmacy tech CE courses available. They can be taken through online courses, reading printed matter, or podcasts. Like the pharmacy technician continuing education courses of the NPTA, once you have finished studying the material you must take a test and get a passing score in order to get the continuing education credits.

Other organizations the provide pharmacy technician CE courses include JER Group, Inc. (through online workshops), American College of Clinical Pharmacy, Baxter Healthcare Corporation, The California Pharmacists Association, Drug Information Association, Drug Store News, DrugTopics.com, Free CE, George Washington University Medical Center, The Iowa Pharmacists Association, MediCom Worldwide, Inc., Medscape.com, the Meniscus Educational Institute, National Community Pharmacists Association, Oregon State Pharmacists Association, PharmaCE, Pharmacy Connects, Pharmacy Times, Power-Pak C.E., Professional CEU, P*ceutics Institute, QuickTestPrep.com, RxSchool, RxSuccess Pharmacy Technician Training Programs, RXTechSchool.com, Serono Symposia USA, State University of New York at Buffalo, Temple University School of Pharmacy, U.S. Pharmacist, and the University of Georgia Center for Continuing Education.

With all the options available for pharmacy technician continuing education it shouldn’t be a problem for pharmacy techs to find courses of interest to them that they can take in order to complete their continuing education requirements. Louis Zhang, Certpharmacytechnician dot com

What Is Olympics Cupping Therapy?

Through Olympics cupping, designed for athletes you cannot only enhance your blood flow but at the same time reduce muscle tension and promote the cell repair. It is even beneficial for connective tissues and aids in the formation of new blood vessels present within them. Athletes make use of cupping services by sports physiotherapy center to heal a host of conditions and aliments.

Different Types of Cupping
In the ancient era, cupping was performed with the help of animal horns. Later different cups made up of ceramic and bamboo evolved. Effective suction through these cups was possible with the use of heat, the cups were first heated in fire and then applied. Once they were cooled, they drew the skin due to pressure difference.

Modern cupping utilize cups that are crafted from glass and are rounded like balls. The two main types of cupping include:

  • Wet Cupping
  • Dry Cupping

In wet cupping a combination of medicines and suction is used to treat the patient, while for dry cupping only the suction method is implemented. Your preferences, present condition and the problems that you are going through help you choose the appropriate one.

What To Expect From Olympics Cupping Treatment
During the treatment, a specialized cup is placed on the skin and the vacuum sucks the muscle upwards. This creates a pressure onto the vessels, allowing the muscle to relax and relieves tension. The cups are usually allowed to settle for a period of 5 – 10 minutes after which they are removed and placed at another part of the skin. The process continues until a particular segment of the body has been rejuvenated by the cupping session.

To help athletes make the most of it, practitioners combine the power of cupping along with acupuncture to treat skin issues, digestions and other associated problems.

Cupping is able to cure a wide range of conditions that athletes often suffer at some point or the other and these include:

  • Facial Paralysis
  • Lumbar disc herniation
  • Herpes Zoster
  • Cervical spondylosis

The best part about this therapy is that it has zero side-effects or risks, allowing you to attain a perfect body without any complications.

But, before you begin with your cupping session do make sure that you consult with qualified practitioners about your conditions, past medical records and your expectations from the treatment. Because this ancient integrative medicine requires the support of both practitioners and patients in order to achieve successful results.

Can You Mix Inalienable Rights With the Business of Medicine?

Actually, we think our work is done, simply by asking the question. Thomas Jefferson tossed the wrench into the process by suggesting in the Declaration of Independence that Americans should have inalienable rights including life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness.

Setting liberty and the pursuit of happiness aside, for now, generally, we divide rights into those which are natural versus legal. Clearly, we have some rights simply because they are allowed and supported by our highly malleable laws and legal system. Other rights are considered essentially independent of law, current acceptable social manner, contemporary political correctness, and leanings of the present government. These rights are seen as expected or natural. And, that which is natural or universal comes to be seen as inalienable.

Rights define our senses of behavioral freedom and sense of entitlement. They circumscribe our expectations of our behavior, that of others, and that expected of corporate entities which are often referred to as if sentient. In our civilization, a body of people of shared civil manners and rights are the bricks and mortar forming the infrastructure of morality, law, and governance we share.

From this point, you work backward. Considering government to be the arbiter, the issues pertinent to unalienable rights are then based upon the society’s decisions defining our morality. Morality is an essential element because inalienable rights generally address the “good,” by necessity defining the bad, right, wrong, and so on. Of course, different religious/spiritual groups, Atheists, legalism and the undecided regarding a source of ultimate moral authority never all agree on the “good”. Even inalienable rights are always a socially dynamic issue, including the definitions and rights pertaining to “life”.

If in the U.S. there is such an entity as an inalienable right to life, then such encompasses the inalienable right to that which keeps you alive. That is, you cannot live without attending to the needs for food, water and all that which protects you from, or is applied in response to the adverse effects of living in our world (AAOL). We do not all have access to ideal food and water, but we shall also be put that aside for now. However, what is society’s responsibility to address the AAOL on people’s well-being? If the effects of AAOL are physical and mental illness, injury, disease, and disability, then it would appear that comprehensive medical care for our citizens is the appropriate response to addressing this inalienable right.

Presume that everyone both empowered and relevant to considering the above arguments drew comparable conclusions. In that case, they would agree that every citizen should have access to comparable medical care. The challenges then become 1) access as primarily defined by the distribution of care facilities, appropriate service providers, and products, and 2) management of quality and cost of products/services delivery.

The cost of all contemporary medical products, services, and related insurance rises much faster, year over year than personal incomes and net revenue growth of the average business. So, most Americans and their employers are not prepared to handle the costs of medical care purchase directly or via insurance. Issues of access and distribution aside, government intervention to address medical care as an inalienable right then means either 1) marked cost capping and controlling consumer fees, 2) subsidizing patient payments, or 3) a combination. Capping and controlling costs would cause an evolution in the business of medicine. All participants (pharmaceutical companies, medical instruments and soft goods manufacturers, sales/distribution organizations, clinicians, insurers, IT services and others) in the industry would need to reconsider their margins, as well as their ability and willingness to remain in the medical industry. However, our government needs to control the sometimes markedly excessive and inflationary medical billing practices. Capping and controlling costs should ideally be tackled first, addressing runaway fees associated with hospital services, pharmaceutical products, surgical procedures, medical hardware, other medical technologies and insurance coverage. All components of the medical system will resist capping and controlling fee schedules.

Providing patient fee subsidies will always be fraught with inflationary excesses, deductibles and patient portions of bills would need to be eliminated. Even nominal point of service charges could always be a challenge unless the net annual out of pocket personal expenditures do not exceed the price of a visit to a fast food venue eliminate them. Otherwise, the middle and lower economic strata and their [potential] employers would continue to be obliged to choose between eating, acquisition of other necessities, employment and offering benefits. Additionally, service providers should not be allowed to bill in excess of fee schedules, writing off the excesses as tax deductions.

There are many products and services people should not expect to purchase if they have not financially successful in life to the extent of their more affluent neighbors. As such, nobody would suggest that all have the inalienable right to own a brand new luxury automobile, yacht or personal jet. However, if as a society we state that life, including full, high-quality medical care is an inalienable right of American citizens, then we should deliver it, without burdening others. But, there is “no free lunch” even regarding medical care. So what does “full, high-quality medical care for all citizens, without burdening others” actually mean? It may need to be defined in two ways: 1) products and services price caps, and 2) society attitude adjustment.

Regarding society attitude adjustment, as an example, we already provide military services to protect the entire nation without attempting to provide some stratified, sliding scale, itemized bill to each citizen. Medical services could be addressed in a similar manner. If medical businesses were all conscripted, essentially indefinitely subcontracted, to deliver care in a uniform manner (e.g., blend of active military care and preferred provider organization models), with a central payer and QA provider, maybe we could do it.

However, unlike changes in health measures, per capita, government spending on healthcare is a poor indicator of the effectiveness of U.S. medical care. Neither is ACA enrollment a measure of care delivery or effective care (e.g., see if holding a season ticket is a measure of NFL game attendance this year). Throwing taxpayer money at a series of poorly cobbled strategies is not an effective national medical care solution. Inalienable right or not, we cannot deliver broad-based high-quality medical care to all citizens via current medical business models.

Understanding Molecular Medicine and Its Major Advantages

Molecular medicine is a broad concept and it incorporates the study of molecular structures, identifying genetic errors for the cause of a disease, use medical nanotechnology to correct them. The fundamental concept of molecular medicine is the distribution of medicine to the body cells and it is similar to the assimilation of oxygen by a healthy human being. The discipline (molecular medicine) is new. It combines medical studies of modern times with biochemistry. It offers a bridge between today’s medical science and biochemistry. The course of molecular biology includes disciplines like biochemistry, immunology, and biotechnology. Nanotechnology in medicine has many advantages like it leads to diminished costs of treatment, cost-effective and yet high quality drugs. Nanotechnology in medicines help in effective diagnosis and treatment of diseases, it will lead to modern treatment methods, treating complicated medical problems can become simplified.

Benefits of molecular medicine

Molecular medicines and nanotechnology in medicine have their own advantages. These include the following:

  • Molecular medicines can lead to the invention of elegant and cheap surgical/diagnostic tools.
  • Medical diagnosis and research can become effective and efficient.
  • Nano medical devices can be implanted permanently to treat specific medical conditions.
  • Many medical conditions can be prevented.
  • Unknown diseases can be treated effectively.
  • This can lead to semi-automated diagnosis and treatment.
  • The nanotechnology in medicines help to reduce mortality rate, improve health.
  • Using gene therapy or similar treatment methods, organs can be replaced easily.
  • The different biological systems in the body can be improved.

When nanotechnology is applied in medicine then it is known as Nano medicine. It caters to the improvement of human health using Nano tools (tools at the molecular level) of the human body. Such technology in medicine encompasses areas like drug delivery using nano-particles.

The human body comprises of molecules, the use of molecular nanotechnology enhances progress in the human medical services. The Nano medicine helps to understand the functioning of the biological machinery inside the living cells. This understanding helps medical professionals to cater to complicated medical conditions like AIDS, cancer, ageing. All these help to bring a significant improvement of the natural human biological structure. The understanding helps to reduce mortality rate, ensure proper functioning at the molecular level of the humans.

The understanding of the molecular medicine has resulted in developing Nano particles/molecules to help transfer medicine to each cell of the body. For a sick or unhealthy entity, such developments in molecular biology lead to effective treatment of complicated diseases. Using Nano medicine, malignant cells within a human body can be tracked and then treated. This entire process includes targeting of bacteria/viruses/tumors within the body by Nano particles, treating infections, diseases.

Molecular medicine advantages

Other advantages of using Nano medicines are given as follows:-

With Nano medicines, treatment is gentle and advanced. Most of such treatments are non-invasive. Powerful drugs may have side effects which cannot be ignored. By using molecular medicines, one can reduce the effects of the drugs. Since the use of Nano medicines does not involve surgery therefore it is less painful. Another important advantage of using Nano medicine is that it involves small yet highly sensitive diagnostic tools which accounts for better treatment of diseases. Treatments using Nano technology in medicines are cost effective. It is effective to treat complicated medical conditions like cancer.

Nano medicine disadvantages:

Nano-particles used as part of nanotechnology in medicines uses biochemical pathways, affect the different biological processes of the human body. Under such circumstances, a lack of knowledge about the effects of the nano-particles on the human body, it processes can be a disadvantage. The researchers who deal with design of the nano-particles remain concerned about their toxicity and characterization on their exposure to the biological pathways. If the nano-particles are toxic then they can pose severe threat to the humans and the environment. The researchers remain concerned as the people part of the society use the molecular medicine. In certain instances, researchers remain in doubt of the possible outcome of the use of certain Nano medicines.

Nanotechnology in medicines have revolutionized medical treatment. The doctors now see a ray of hope to treat medical conditions and diseases which were not treatable earlier. Nano medicines have their own advantages. However, researches are on to make the most of nanotechnology in the days to come.

Sterility in Medicine

We are lucky to live in this century, one where medicines have been developed to combat most ailments, where we can be sure that the medicines we have are safe and sterile when needed and if we need a surgery, that the tools and equipment needed is all safe, clean and germ free.

Throughout history, they didn’t give much thought to keeping things clean and sterile, but luckily today we know that it is used to promote health and to eliminate the risk of contamination. What does being sterile mean though? Well, sterility is defined as the complete absence of any viable microorganism whether on a surgical tool, on equipment or in medicines themselves.

There are a few different ways that sterility is achieved in the medical and pharmaceutical fields. The first is using steam. This technique was actually invented back in the 1880’s by a man called Charles Chamberland. He came up with the autoclave, a steam sterilizer that used water to create steam to clean surgical tools and kill bacteria between patients. Today we still use this technique to clean glassware and surgical instruments.

What about things that can’t withstand high temperatures? In the case of sensitive electronic components, plastics and cardboard that need to be sterilized, the technique is EtO or EO, and it uses Ethylene Oxide gas as the sanitizing agent.

Another way to sanitize things is by the use of dry heat. This is used for things like needles and metal instruments that can get very hot with no worry that they will disintegrate.

But what about medicines themselves? They can’t be steamed, but they can go through the process known as aseptic processing. This takes a sterile medicine and packages it in a sterile container using flash heating. It is a task that also requires the use of clean rooms, bacteria retaining filters and dry heat. By using this technique however, drugs can be imported and exported anywhere in the world without the need for refrigeration and will be sterile when they arrive at the patient.

Sterile medicines, equipment and tools all help to provide the best care possible to us when we are sick. We don’t have to worry about contamination as the risks for it is low if all temperatures, gases, humidity and pressure levels have been accurately monitored throughout the sterilization process to ensure validity and effectiveness. Medicine has come a long way and the results are safer and more reliable than ever before.

Aseptic Processing

If you go back in time, hygienic practices weren’t even heard of let alone carried out. Medicines were made primarily of plants and whatever else was on hand and even, during the Victorian period when pharmaceuticals became more main stream, they weren’t very worried about how sterile the compounds were.

Today of course, pharmaceuticals are big business and having a product delivered to a patient sterile and ready to go is the norm. We’re talking eye drops, ear drops, inject, infusion products and the like, all things that have to remain sterile until ready to use.

By definition, something that is sterile has the absence of any viable microorganism, and the specification is unchanging and independent of the manufacturing process of the drug in the first place. To make a sterile product then, means filling and sealing the product containers under high quality environmental conditions, with care and with the same practices in place day after day.

When you are talking foods, beverages and medicines, keeping them sterile is a process called aseptic processing. This means that the sterile product is packaged in such a way as to keep its sterile rating. It is accomplished by flash heating which uses less energy than other techniques while (in the case of food) retains more nutrients. When you are talking pharmaceuticals, the ante is upped and the procedure also includes the use of clean rooms, bacteria retaining filters, and either dry or steam heat.

Some examples of food and drinks being in a sterile container include tetra juice boxes and drink pouches, but for medicines, they are stored in plastic or glass containers as these materials form a tight seal against microbiological organisms, contaminants, and degradation of the substance being carried. Using aseptic processing means you no longer need refrigeration and it makes worldwide import and export safe and economical.

Aseptic containers range in size from tiny ones that hold just a few ounces of medicine to ones that can hold eight million gallons in a tank on an ocean liner. Companies that package these medicines and the like can then send their product all over the world, knowing that once it reaches its destination, it is still a viable, sterilized product and will remain that way until it is used for a patient.

The next time you have a prescription for eye drops or have medicines administered by injection or drip, you can be sure those medicines are sterile, all thanks for aseptic processing.

Cosmetic Medicines Ordering, Storage, Supply and Incident Reporting

This article gives an overview of the systems and processes that must be followed by cosmetic clinics when supplying prescription medicines.

A prescription medicine or drug legally requires a qualified doctor, dentist, nurse or pharmacist to write a prescription for a named patient. The list of drugs and prescribing qualifications may vary in different countries.

A cosmetic clinic must ensure that all medicines are ordered, stored and supplied within the legislative and other relevant pharmaceutical guidelines available.

Therefore ordering, storage and supply of medicines for use within the practice must be undertaken according to appropriate procedures and guidelines to ensure all relevant legislation and pharmaceutical information is adhered to.

Any medicines stored within a typical cosmetic clinic are those used for aesthetic purposes, this includes drugs such as Botox ® and Hyaluronidase. These must be stored according to manufacturer’s guidelines in a locked refrigerator or locked cabinet as appropriate. The temperature of the refrigerator should be monitored and documented daily. If the temperature is found to be outside the recommended range the pharmacy supplier must be informed as soon as possible and if necessary the medicines are returned to the supplier and a new supply obtained.

Supply of Medicines and Maintaining Patient Records for Cosmetic Clinics

The Medical Practitioner is responsible for maintaining a record of medicines obtained from the supplier for use during treatment. A copy of the prescription is retained in the patient’s notes and the following information is noted in the Medicines IN register. The Medical practitioner must include the following details:

– the name of the medicine (generic)

– the dose provided by the pharmacy

– the amount provided by the pharmacy

– the format of the medicine (oral I IM etc)

– the batch numbers and expiry dates

The Medical Practitioner is responsible for ensuring that details of the medicines administered are recorded in the patient notes, including:

– the name of the medicine (generic)

– the dose provided

– the route of administration

– the batch number and expiry date of the medicine

– the date and time of administration

The Medical Practitioner must also document in the Medicines OUT register the name of the patient the medicine was administered to and the date and time of administration. This will ensure an audit trail is available for each practitioner.

All medicines not used or expired must be returned to the pharmacy.

In conclusion only a medical professional should be accepted on a cosmetic training course. This will ensure all practitioners have experience with the use of prescription only medicines and record keeping. The medical practitioner who facilitates a cosmetic intervention should be a qualified doctor, dentist, nurse or pharmacist. These specialists have the prerequisite medical experience plus understand their legal and ethical requirements in prescribing, dispensing and administration of such drugs.

Any errors with the medication must be recorded and reported.

Reporting a Medication Incident

A cosmetic clinic must ensure that all medication incidents follow local legislative and other guidelines for your country of practice. The following is based on the UK CQC guidelines.

All practitioners involved with medication prescribing, dispensing or administration must be aware of the procedures to be followed in the event of a medication error or near miss.

Medication errors or near misses will occur despite having risk procedures in place, and all personnel involved in medication prescribing, dispensing or administration are at risk of being involved an error or a near miss. Because of this, comprehensive reporting of all medication incidents is crucial to enable the organization to learn from mistakes and improve practice wherever possible.

All incidents involving medication prescribing, dispensing or administration, ‘near misses’ and serious drug reactions must be documented on the Incident Report Form. A medication error is a preventable incident or omission that results in an increase in the risk of patient harm. A ‘near miss’ is a medication error that is discovered before it reaches the patient, thus preventing harm to the patient.

What to Report

The following are some of the issues that require an incident report:

– incorrect dose administered (both over and under dosing)

– incorrect route of administration

– incorrect rate of administration

– incorrect drug administered

– administration to the wrong patient

– failure to document administration in the patient’s medical notes

– administration of an expired drug

– prescribing errors

– incorrect labels

– allergies not recorded

– serious adverse effects including allergic reactions

Near Misses will also be recorded on the Incident Report form.

How to Report Medication errors

Medication errors involving administration to a patient will be documented in the patient’s notes. The Medical Practitioner should inform the patient.

The incident should be documented fully before the end of the day. This report form must be completed by the Medical Practitioner and given to the Practice Manager without delay.

Follow Up Procedures for Medication Errors

A follow-up is undertaken by the Medical Practitioner to ensure the safety of the patient. If necessary the patient must be referred to the nearest Emergency department for further review. The Practice Manager must undertake an investigation into the event ensuring a statement is taken from those involved.

The incident must be discussed at the next Clinical Governance meeting and an action plan developed to aim to prevent recurrence; this may include further training for the personnel involved.

Any severe medication incident must be reported to the within 24 hours of it occurring.

I hope you enjoyed the article. For more information about medicines and their regulations you can check with the Department of Health and MRHA in the UK. In the USA please refer to The Food and Drug Administration (FDA).